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Origin of Hanfu


Origin of Hanfu 

    Some ancient books believe that the Han people (and their ancestors) already have a unique clothing system. For example, "Historical Records" believes that "Chinese clothes were made by the Yellow Emperor." "Before the Yellow Emperor, there were no clothes houses. And the Yellow Emperor built houses, made clothes, and carried out funerals, so that all people would survive and die." In the era without physical support from archaeology Previously, the earliest appearance of Hanfu should be during the Yin and Shang period. About 5,000 years ago, during the Yangshao Culture of the Neolithic Age, China produced primitive agriculture and textile industries, and began to use woven linen to make clothes. Huangdi’s wife Leizu invented silkworm feeding and silk spinning. His clothes are becoming more and more complete.
After the Yin and Shang Dynasties, the crown clothing system was initially established. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, the clothing system was gradually improved, and a uniform clothing system centered on the "Emperor Mianfu" was formed [. "Take advantage of Yin's quarrel and serve Zhou's Mian" is the essence of Confucian thought of governing the country. The Zhou Li reference draws on the ritual and music system of the Xia and Shang dynasties.

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Hanfu Sports

During the Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period, the styles of clothes were unprecedentedly rich, mainly in deep clothing and Hu clothing. In the late Zhou Dynasty, due to drastic changes in politics, economy, ideology and culture, especially the Hundred Schools of Thought had a certain influence on the perfection of clothing, the clothing and customs of the princes began to have obvious differences. Created a deep garment. The crown dress system was included in the scope of "rule of etiquette" and became a manifestation of etiquette. Since then, the Chinese dress system has become more detailed. "In ancient times, the clothes that passed up and down were deep clothes, and the clothes that represented the characteristics of the times were also deep clothes. Deep clothes can actually be the characteristics of ancient clothes. Those who talk about ancient clothes should be first. What is deep clothes, "Book of Rites•Deep "Yi" Kong Shi Zhengyi said: "So those who call deep clothes, according to Yufu, the upper and lower garments are not connected, this deep clothes are connected with the clothes, the quilt is deep, so it is called the deep clothes. "In short, the system of deep clothing is actually the first of the ancient clothing. The leader group clothing of deep clothing is not only in the form of the system, but also in the form of uniformity. In time, it has been popular for the longest time. At the same time as the deep clothing, there is also Hu Hu clothing is generally composed of short clothes, trousers and boots. The body is tight and narrow, which is convenient for nomadic and shooting hunting. King Zhao Wuling first adopted Hu clothing as a military uniform in the Central Plains in order to strengthen his own army. Therefore, Hu clothing was worn for a time. In addition, there are musicians who wear wind hoods, dancers have sleeves that are several feet long, hunters' clothes are mostly tied, and some people often wear horned hats or magpie tail crowns, and small-sleeved dresses. Wait for the next clothes[.
Later development

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Hanfu
After Qin unified China, various systems were established, including the clothing and crown system. The etiquette system of the Han Dynasty was formulated by the Taichang uncle Sun Tong of Emperor Han Gaozu based on the etiquette system of Xia, Shang and Wednesday. The clothing for men and women in the Western Han Dynasty still follows the form of deep clothing. There are middle clothes and deep clothes in Chanyi. In the Western Han Dynasty, there are two types of women's deep clothing, straight and curved, and the tailoring is different from that of the Warring States period. The collar of the Western Han men's deep coat jacket is wide to the shoulders, the right gusset is straight, and the front flap is drooping to the ground. In order to facilitate movement, the back flap is cut out in a trapezoid shape from below the knee, making the sides of the flap into a dovetail shape. When women in the Han Dynasty worked, they liked to wear a long skirt and a long skirt with a long hanging waistband; when they worked, men in the Han Dynasty wore a broken skirt, lowered their nose trousers, and covered their clothes with sarongs. This kind of costume can be used by farmers, industry, and commerce. Dressed.
Until the Eastern Han Dynasty Emperor Ming, referring to the clothing system of the three dynasties and the Qin Dynasty, he established a crown clothing system in the Han dynasty with a crown and hat as the main symbol of classification. The clothing presents a solemn and elegant style as a whole. Men in the Qin and Han dynasties mainly wore a wide-clothed and large-sleeved gown, which was mainly divided into two types: curvy gowns and straight gowns. They can be worn on other occasions except for sacrifices and court meetings. Another characteristic of the Han Dynasty was the implementation of the matching system. Women in the Han Dynasty generally combed their hair back and twisted it into a bun. There are so many names in the bun style that it is impossible to mention. In addition, the noble women also put steps and flowers on their heads as decorations. Slaves usually wrap their heads with towels. Women's dresses in the Han Dynasty were dark clothes, which were different from those in the Warring States Period. There are also skirts and pants. The Han Dynasty also had strict grade regulations on shoes.
The clothing of the Wei, Jin and the Northern and Southern Dynasties was influenced by social politics, economy, and ideology. From the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it still followed the old system of the Qin and Han Dynasties and developed into the mutual influence, mutual absorption and fusion of various ethnic groups during the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The clothing of this period is mainly characterized by natural free and easy, elegant and empty. Baotou with a scarf is the main first server of this period. The more popular is a "cage crown" with a cage towel on the crown. The clothing of Han men in this period was mainly shirts with wide cuffs and no clothing or restraints. The hair accessories of Han women are also quite distinctive, mainly the popularity of chignon. Women’s clothing in the Wei and Jin dynasties inherited the traditions of the Qin and Han Dynasties, and improved on the traditional basis. Generally, the upper body wears shirts, jackets, and skirts, and the lower body wears skirts. The styles are mostly thrifty and plump. The body parts are tight-fitting and the cuffs are fat. , The skirt is a multi-pleated skirt, with a long skirt and loose hem, so as to achieve a handsome and chic effect.
The clothing of the Tang Dynasty was a link between the previous and the next. Legal clothes are traditional dresses, including crowns, diadems, clothes, skirts, etc.; ordinary clothes, also known as official clothes, are clothes worn on general formal occasions, including round-necked gowns, bats, leather belts, and boots. Pin color clothing has formed a system in the Tang Dynasty. More civilians are dressed in white. The updo style of women in the Tang Dynasty is complicated. There are also gold hairpins and rhino combs on the sideburns, and noble women's facial makeup is goose yellow, flower tin, and makeup. Women's clothing in the Tang Dynasty was mainly skirts, shirts, and drapes. Underwear is the main style of clothing for women in the Tang Dynasty. In the Sui Dynasty and the early Tang Dynasty, women's short skirts used small sleeves and tight-fitting long skirts. The skirts were high-waisted, usually above the waist, and some were even tied under the armpits and tied with ribbons, giving people a pretty Slender feeling. The underskirts of the Mid-Tang Dynasty were wider than those of the Early Tang Dynasty, and the others remained the same.
The clothing of the Song Dynasty generally followed the old system of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. However, because the Song Dynasty was in the midst of internal and external troubles for many years, coupled with the influence of Cheng-Zhu Neo-Confucianism and other factors, the costumes of this period advocated simplicity, rigor and subtlety. The soft feet of the Tang Dynasty have evolved into a hat with wooden bones and lacquered yarn on the outside. The emperor and high-ranking officials wore sacred heads, tolerance and servants wore footless sacred heads, and scholars wore headscarves. Men's clothing in the Song Dynasty was still dominated by round neck robes. Officials all wore robes except for sacrificial ceremonies, and grades were distinguished by different colors. The hair styles of women in the Song dynasty are based on the updo that prevailed in the late Tang Dynasty, and hairpins for flowers have become a common practice. The female skirts of the Song Dynasty were narrower than those of the Tang Dynasty, and had fine pleats; the shirts were mostly double-sided, covering the skirts.
In the Yuan Dynasty, long clothes are collectively called gowns, and their styles are not much different between the north and the south, but the materials are expensive and cheap, but the gap is great. The hair styles of Han men have not changed much, but the hair styles of Han women in the north have been simplified. At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, it tried to eliminate the influence of the Mongolian clothing system in the Yuan Dynasty on the Han clothing. It was not until the twenty-sixth year of Hongwu that many service systems were established. During the Ming Dynasty, cotton cloth was popularized, and the clothing materials of ordinary people improved. The official first service of the Ming Dynasty is slightly different with the Song Yuan Tuotou. Ordinary people's clothing is long, short, or shirt, or skirt, basically inheriting the traditional style of clothing, and the variety is very rich. In the Ming Dynasty, in addition to the traditional hats, Zhu Yuanzhang personally formulated two kinds of hats, which were issued throughout the country and used by scholars and generals, namely the six-in-one unified hat and the square flat towel.
Shaving

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Shaving
In order to weaken the ethnic identity of the Han people in order to maintain the rule of Manchuria, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty practiced "shave their hair easy to serve". After the Manchus entered the Pass, they ordered the Hans to shave their hair and make them easy to wear. In May of the first year of Shunzhi (1644), the regent and Prince Shuorui said: "There are people in various castles who send people to be soothed and caressed... There are people who do not shave their hair although they are called surrender, which means to wait and see suspiciously. , Set a time limit, until the expiration date, arrive in Beijing according to the amount, and increase grace according to the discretion. If the limit is not reached, it is obviously resisted and convicted." After that, the Qing court issued decree on shaved hair and easy service.
In the second year of Shunzhi, the Qing army captured the Jiangnan provinces, and the Qing government has since ordered the implementation of the system of shaving heads and changing service throughout the country. The Qing government once again issued an order to shave hair, requiring that "there is a limit of ten days inside and outside the capital, and all provinces and localities in Zhili Province, from the date of the ministry, but also limited to ten days." If there is "the Ming system is still in place, it will not follow the dynasty Those who are under the system will be killed without pardon.” To cooperate with this is the forcibly changing the style of Han Chinese clothes. At that time, countless people were arrested for wearing Han Chinese clothes. The people of Jiangyin rose up to resist and persisted in the War of Resistance for three months. The city was broken and the whole people fought to death. None of men, women, children and children surrendered. The people of Jiading also persisted in the struggle for more than two months and were brutally slaughtered by the Qing soldiers, which turned out to be an unprecedented brutal tragedy in Chinese history. At that time, the vast areas of China were due to the destruction of agriculture and handicrafts by the feudal rulers at the end of the Ming Dynasty, as well as the military rulers. The advance of the uprising has caused many places to be deserted and devastated. Following this cruel policy followed one after another, the change of the crown and the easy service. The Qing government once again forced Han soldiers and civilians to change Manchu costumes. Some rural peasants, who do not know the imperial decree, occasionally wore Ming dynasty clothing to enter the city. Most of them had to be stripped of their bodies and were lucky to be able to save their lives. It can be seen that, just like the haircutting order, the change of the clothing is implemented through compulsory methods.
The long-term resistance struggle of the Han people made the Qing government also consider making some concessions to stabilize the situation. Therefore, the so-called "ten obeys ten do not obey", that is, men do not obey women, life or death do not obey in clothing, yang obeys yin, officials do not obey, old people do not obey, and Confucianism does not obey monks and Taoism. , Advocating actors and actresses who do not follow; and officials who do not follow marriage, state titles and official titles, and taxation and language and writing. This limited concession finally retained some of the characteristics of Hanfu, but in general, Hanfu was gradually dying out under the bloody suppression and massacre by the Qing rulers. It also led to the two-hundred-year history of the Qing Dynasty. The Han men's clothing was basically the model of Manchu. Cheongsam, long gown, and mantle were all improvements and developments of the ethnic costumes with the Manchu as the main body, rather than the traditional ethnic costumes of the Han [.
Retention revival

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Hanfu Revival
Although Hanfu itself disappeared under the Qing Dynasty’s ruling policies such as shaved hair and easy clothes, some of its elements have not been extinct because of its strong vitality, until the modern Han people believe in Taoism, Buddhism, some remote mountain people, and many ethnic minorities in China. All of them still maintain the characteristics of Hanfu, and some of the elements of Hanfu can still be seen in some important sacrifices, commemorative activities, and folk festivals in modern society. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of China's national power, people began to examine the outstanding parts of their traditional culture. Some people have restored traditional Han costumes by examining Hanfu and taking the essence to remove the dross. At the same time, they restored traditional Hanfu by restoring traditional festivals, restoring traditional rituals, offering sacrifices to sages, promoting traditional doctrines, and promoting traditional musical instruments. To promote it and call it the Hanfu Movement

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